In general, neuromarketing analyzes the levels of memory, emotion and attention that consumers show when faced with different stimuli, such as, for example, a change in the color of a product or its position, among others.
Searching the consumer’s unconscious
Neuromarketing can work with the conscious or unconscious part of the consumer, depending on the object of study. For example, some techniques seek to know which areas of the cerebral cortex are activated in response to a specific stimulus and, therefore, in these techniques we measure unconscious, spontaneous responses. And, of course, these are the most truthful.
Knowing the emotions and motivations of the consumer is the fundamental objective of neuromarketing. As you know, the emotional part of the consumer is what ends up deciding whether to buy a product or not, so it is not surprising that this is the focus of study of this technique.
The first seconds, fundamental
The consumer’s first moments in front of a product, or even in front of a website, are fundamental to capture their attention and stimulate their emotions. The over-stimulation to which we are continuously subjected, at any time of our lives (television, Internet, outdoor advertising…) leaves us very little margin to capture the public’s attention and, what is more difficult, to maintain that attention.
What is the purpose of neuromarketing?
Once we know how the consumer responds to one stimulus or another, we can make modifications to the product or brand to improve this perception and, therefore, the success of the sale.
For example, after a study we may realize that the design of our product is not the right one, or that by changing the price slightly (and it does not always have to be downward), the consumer receives the product much more positively. We can also see that the target we are addressing is not the right one or that the brand is not being well received.
The five senses as the object of study of neuromarketing
All our senses are susceptible to neuromarketing tests. For example, the position of the products on the supermarket shelves, why are some on the second shelf and others on the last shelf? This is no coincidence. Or the smell of freshly baked bread (some bakeries or other establishments, such as creperies, use techniques so that the smell of their products fills the whole street and you are attracted to their establishment).
Music sets the rhythm of the purchase
In many clothing stores and restaurants they use music to set the pace or to play with the shopper’s emotions. For example, in young clothing stores, party music is played, because they want to motivate people to buy clothes with the idea of going out, dressing up…
On the other hand, in other places, such as a supermarket, slow music will be used so that you are not in a hurry and buy more. Or, on the contrary, in a fast food establishment, what they are interested in is that you eat and leave, then the music will be faster and you, unconsciously, that is what you will do.
Some neuroscience techniques: Eye-tracking
Eye-tracking consists of studying eye movements. What is the user looking at most? Where does your attention stop? Thanks to these studies we can know at which point of a website the user stops more or what is the general reading of a website (on the Internet there is no logical reading as when reading on paper).
In this way, companies can know where to place within their website those elements that they want to highlight or also realize which section is creating more interest and, perhaps, was not the expected one.
Eye-tracking measures gaze fixation (long fixations show interest and short fixations show incomprehension), blinking, pupil dilation (dilation shows an activation of emotions) or visual pathways, among others.
Other techniques, somewhat more complex but common in this type of studies are encephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electromyography or galvanic skin response.